More efficient mechanized production produced about 1,500 candles per hour. This allowed candles to become an easily affordable commodity for the masses. Candlemakers also began to fashion wicks out of tightly (rather than simply twisted) strands of cotton. This technique classic pillar candle makes wicks curl over as they burn, maintaining the height of the wick and therefore the flame. Because much of the excess wick is incinerated, these are referred to as “self-trimming” or “self-consuming” wicks. In the mid-1850s succeeded in from coal and oil shales and developed a commercially viable method of production Paraffin could be used to make inexpensive candles of high quality.